澳洲幸运8的总和大小
業界資訊

換一種語言讀金庸(十八)

發布時間:2019-02-26 08:49:17??|??來源:中國網??|??作者:王曉輝??|??責任編輯:張露露

作者:王曉輝

長嘯是中國古人的一種歌吟方式,撮口發出悠長響亮的聲音,沒有實際內容,不遵守既定格式,或喜或悲,只隨心所欲吐露出一腔心曲。岳飛《滿江紅》:“仰天長嘯,壯懷激烈。” 王維《竹里館》:“獨坐幽篁里,彈琴復長嘯。” 《三國志·蜀書》記載,諸葛亮“每晨夜從容,常抱膝長嘯”。在中國古代文學作品中,“長嘯”二字出現頻率極高,多為名人高士月夕風晨之際獨自抒發情懷,可見,長嘯與詩詞歌賦琴棋書畫一樣,是一件雅事。但金庸偏偏將這件雅事用在讀者意想不到的地方。

《射雕英雄傳》第十八回,西毒歐陽鋒到桃花島為侄子歐陽克求親,北丐洪七公也來到桃花島為郭靖和黃蓉說親,東邪西毒北丐三大高手齊聚桃花島,自然少不了一番比拼。一般高手過招,除了拳腳兵刃,就是招數內力,但金庸別出心裁,為三大高手設計了一場匪夷所思的比武較量。歐陽鋒彈奏鐵箏,黃藥師吹奏洞簫,洪七公發出長嘯,琴音、簫聲和長嘯帶著三大高手的內力纏斗在一起,既驚心動魄,又高雅別致,讓讀者目眩神馳,不能自已。

《射雕》第十八回:

“只聽得箏聲漸急,到后來猶如金鼓齊鳴、萬馬奔騰一般,驀地里柔韻細細,一縷簫聲幽幽地混入了箏音之中,郭靖只感心中一蕩,臉上發熱,連忙鎮懾心神。鐵箏聲音雖響,始終淹沒不了簫聲,雙聲雜作,音調怪異之極。鐵箏猶似巫峽猿啼、子夜鬼哭,玉簫恰如昆岡鳳鳴,深閨私語,此高彼低,彼進此退,不相上下......

突然間遠處海上隱隱傳來一陣長嘯之聲。黃藥師和歐陽鋒同時心頭一震,簫聲和箏聲登時都緩了。歐陽鋒揮手彈箏,錚錚兩下,聲如裂帛,遠處那嘯聲忽地拔高,與他交上了手。過不多時,黃藥師的洞簫也加入團戰,簫聲有時與長嘯爭持,有時又與箏音纏斗,三種聲音此起彼伏,斗在一起。這時發嘯之人已近在身旁樹林之中,嘯聲忽高忽低,時而如龍吟獅吼,時而如狼嗥梟鳴,或若長風振林,或若微雨濕花,極盡千變萬化之致。簫聲清亮,箏聲凄厲,卻也各呈妙音,絲毫不落下風。三般聲音糾纏在一起,斗得難解難分。”

這哪里是比武,簡直是一場音樂盛宴!也只有金庸和金庸的想像力,才能設計出如此文藝范兒的武打場面。看了金庸的武俠小說,我才明白外國人為什么把中國功夫叫作Martial Art,因為它就是Art。

Gigi Chang英譯:

Viper Ouyang's playing had accelerated to the point where it was impossible to distinguish between individual notes. A wall of sound pressed into Guo Jing, as if ten thousand horses were galloping towards him or hundreds of battle drums were being beaten. Now and again, a gentle crooning rose above the twang of the zither, growing more confident and persistent. It brought a flush to Guo Jing's face and a flutter in his chest, prompting him to turn his focus back to controlling his senses.

However loud the Zheng was, it failed to drown out the murmur of the Xiao. Each Master held firm to his own tune. Together, they produced a raucous discordance.

The iron zither was the call of monkeys and apes in a remote mountain range, the hoot of owls in a dark wood. The jade flute was songs under the spring sun, whispers in a maiden's chamber. When one tune rose in pitch, the other descended. When one reached a crescendo, the other fell all but silent. Neither succeeded in dominating the other......

At this decisive point, a whistle wafted in from the sea.

It sent a shockwave through the two Masters and their music faltered for a moment. The whistler must be on a boat nearing the island.

Viper Ouyang struck the Zheng twice, sending forth a tremolo so violent that it could tear cloth. The newcomer accepted the challenge by skipping effortlessly to a very high note.

Apothecary Huang joined in. His flute flitter between grappling with the whistle and contending with the zither.

A third martial great had arrived.

Now the whistle came form the woods. Dipping and soaring, it roared with the might of tigers and lions, it neighed and brayed like a horse or a donkey. It was like the wind blowing through a forest, or a drizzle caressing petals. There was infinite variety to its tones.

The flute answered in a clear and gentle voice. The zither rattled and rasped with melancholic menace. Each Master stood firm. No one could gain the upper hand.

金庸的這段描寫,不吝筆墨,極盡鋪陳,對讀者來說是莫大的享受,但對譯者來說卻不啻于一場災難。首先,如何翻譯“長嘯”就是一個大大的難題。許淵沖先生用Towards the skies, I heave long sighs 來翻譯岳飛的“仰天長嘯”;Giles將王維的“獨坐幽篁里,彈琴復長嘯”譯作 Beneath the bamboo grove, alone, I seize my flute and sit and croon。long sigh是長嘆,croon是低吟,這兩種譯法是翻譯名家根據詩詞的意境、情緒和音韻作出的變通,但都不是真正意義上的“長嘯”。常見的漢英字典一般把“長嘯”譯為long and loud cry,屬于解釋性的翻譯,倒譯回去就變成了“呼喊”。Gigi Chang用whistle一詞,雖有差距,但恐怕也沒有更好的選擇了。人發出的聲音,如果不是歌唱,不是呼喊,又不是哼哼或者咳嗽,也只有whistle能與黃藥師的簫聲和歐陽鋒的箏聲抗衡了,所以,洪七公不僅是武學泰斗,還應該是一位口技大師。

2008年9月17日,以作家金庸筆名命名的金庸書院在他的家鄉浙江海寧奠基。圖為金庸在書院奠基儀式上致辭。【資料圖/新華社】

金庸用了至少十個四字成語來描寫武林“三大男高音”的比拼:金鼓齊鳴,萬馬奔騰,巫峽猿啼,子夜鬼哭,昆岡鳳鳴,深閨私語,龍吟獅吼,狼嗥梟鳴,長風振林,微雨濕花。從字面的氣勢和變化上看,簡直就是一部大型交響樂,只不過演出場景不在金色大廳而在東海桃花島。

譯者Gigi Chang在翻譯過程中費了很多心思,幾乎所有的四字成語都譯出來了,而且有的還譯得相當巧妙。如第一句,“只聽得箏聲漸急,到后來猶如金鼓齊鳴、萬馬奔騰一般。” 譯者通過郭靖的感受翻譯出“金鼓齊鳴,萬馬奔騰”的氣勢:Viper Ouyang's playing had accelerated to the point where it was impossible to distinguish between individual notes. A wall of sound pressed into Guo Jing, as if ten thousand horses were galloping towards him or hundreds of battle drums were being beaten. 這樣處理要比將成語譯出并堆砌在一起要好得多。

最大的難題出在“子夜鬼哭”、“昆岡鳳鳴”和“狼嗥梟鳴”的轉換上。鬼怎么哭,鳳凰怎么叫,我們誰也不知道,所以,Gigi Chang用the hoot of owls in a dark wood (夜貓子叫)替換了“子夜鬼哭”,把“昆岡鳳鳴”譯成了song under the spring sun。前者可以理解,但后者實際上變成改寫和創作了,值得商榷。原文中金庸形容洪七公的嘯聲如龍吟獅吼,狼嗥梟鳴,但譯者已經把“梟鳴”,也就是“夜貓子叫”借給了歐陽鋒的箏聲,用來替換“夜半鬼哭”, 無奈之下,又找了兩種動物,將狼和梟換成了馬和驢:Dipping and soaring, it roared with the might of tigers and lions, it neighed and brayed like a horse or a donkey。這么做,動作幅度有點兒偏大了,而且用驢叫比擬洪七公的長嘯,好像不太合適,他七大爺在天之靈若知此事,定然不爽。

動手做過翻譯的人都知道,這是一項極難的事,更何況還是翻譯大師的作品。Gigi Chang能夠有如此情懷,付出如此巨大的努力,殊為不易,值得我們學習和尊敬。

很多跨文化的東西是無法等效翻譯的,或者理論上說得通,但實際操作中根本做不到。如果有哪位高手能把金庸武俠小說里的功夫,如落英繽紛掌,黯然銷魂掌,庖丁解牛掌,天山六陽掌,五羅輕煙掌,飄雪穿云掌,金剛般若掌,還有什么蘭花拂穴手,天山折梅手,慈悲千葉手,千蛛萬毒手,三無三不手,龍爪手,鳳爪手,波羅蜜手,都能準確優美地譯成英文,而且讓外國人一看就懂,國家授予他一個“跨文化大師”稱號或者“五一”勞動獎章,毫不為過。


澳洲幸运8的总和大小 浙江双色球2 重庆时时彩计划稳赚版 北京pk10冠军技巧 北京pk10计划三期怎么玩 聚彩票手机app下载 北京pk10开发平台 重庆开奖号码查询结果 彩无敌河内5分彩计划 精准时时彩计划网页版 北京pk10走势